Monday, 12 June 2017 18:34

SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND WEIGHT GAIN - WHAT’S THE LINK?

Written by

 

 
 
There may not be an obvious link between sleep deprivation and your weight, but more and more research is showing just how important sleep is for your mood, mental performance, overall health and wellness, and especially when it comes to maintaining a healthy weight.
 
Many studies show that people who have a short sleep duration simply weigh more. And, in fact, as the levels of chronic (long-term) sleep deprivation have increased over the past 50 years, so have the growing epidemics of being overweight or obese.
 
And many studies now agree that lack of sleep is an “independent” risk factor (i.e. a direct risk) for weight gain and obesity. 
 
Especially for women.
 
One large analysis of 45 studies which included over 600,000 people says, “studies from around the world show a consistent increased risk of obesity amongst short sleepers in children and adults.” The increased risks were 89% for children and 55% for adults.
 
The overall data in that study suggests that a reduction in one hour of sleep per day would be associated with about 1.4 kg in additional weight.
 
Right now, 40% of American adults say that they get less than 7 hours of sleep per night, and 7 hours is the minimum recommended nightly sleep, with 9 being the maximum.
 
HOW SLEEP DEPRIVATION LEADS TO WEIGHT GAIN
 
Overall, there are two main ways (with two factors each) that we think that lack of sleep contributes to weight gain and obesity.
 
First, it increases calorie intake in two ways.
It allows more time available to eat; and 
It messes with your hunger hormones.
 
Second, it decreases your ability to burn off calories in two ways. 
It can slow your metabolism; and 
It can cause fatigue and, therefore, reduced physical activity.
 
Let’s talk about all four of these factors.
 
LACK OF SLEEP INCREASES TIME AVAILABLE TO EAT
 
Some researchers suggest that the longer the time you’re awake, the more opportunity you have to eat, or more specifically, to snack. In fact, some studies have shown that these tend to be nighttime snacks.
 
And guess what many sleep-deprived people tend to snack on at night?
 
You guessed it...high-fat, sometimes high-carb, and less protein and fibre snacks.
 
Which, of course, can lead to weight gain.
 
And, at least one study shows that eating at night increases the time it takes (healthy people) to fall asleep. Especially for women. So there is a bit of a “vicious cycle” in play here.
 
LACK OF SLEEP MESSES WITH YOUR HUNGER HORMONES
 
Many people who sleep less tend to eat more calories throughout the day. And not only due to increased time available for snacking, but also because of how lack of sleep can mess with the hormones that control both hunger and appetite.  
 
How does this happen? 
 
This is a “double-whammy” because some studies show that lack of sleep not only increases the stomach’s hunger hormone “ghrelin” (making you hungrier), but it also decreases the fat tissue’s fullness hormone “leptin” (making you feel less full).
 
These changes can clearly lead to more eating, and eventually weight gain or even obesity.
 
It’s possible that this is a natural mechanism that our body uses to make sure we get enough food for longer waking times. But this doesn’t always serve us well, as it tends to make us “overshoot” our energy needs and take in a bit more than we actually need.
 
LACK OF SLEEP MAY SLOW YOUR METABOLISM
 
Research is just emerging on this topic, but it seems to show that sleep deprivation can lower your “energy expenditure” and body temperature?
 
This means that your body may naturally burn less fuel at rest during the days when you’re sleep deprived.
 
When you burn less, you store more.
 
LACK OF SLEEP REDUCES EXERCISE
 
You know how tired you feel after not getting enough sleep?
 
This is the fourth way that lack of sleep affects weight.
 
By increasing fatigue, sleep deprivation can reduce the motivation to exercise. 
 
And when you’re burning less fuel at rest (slower metabolism), and less likely to exercise, you’re at risk of gaining weight.
 
WANT TO KNOW THE GREAT NEWS?
 
Lack of sleep is considered a “modifiable risk factor”.
 
This means that, although it increases our risk for obesity, we have some power over it.
 
How well you sleep and how much sleep you get is something that you can improve by putting into place some tips and making them regular habits.
 
TIPS FOR GETTING BETTER SLEEP
 
1 - Make sleep a priority.

 Let’s admit that, for a lot of us, the lack of sleep we’re getting is often because we simply give other activities priority. Making something a priority will help you achieve it.


 
2 - Be consistent with your sleeping times.

Your body loves routine, and having a consistent bedtime can actually train your brain, your body’s clock (circadian rhythm), and sleep hormones to follow suit.


 
3 - Eliminate stimulants after noon.

 Ideally, you won’t expose your body to chemical stimulation for the whole afternoon and evening. This includes caffeine (coffee, black and green teas, chocolate) and nicotine (cigarettes).
 
4 - Get some exercise and sunshine during the day.

 Of course, exercise and sunshine have many health benefits. They also tell your brain that it’s daytime, so it can help to set your body’s clock.

 Tip: Be sure to finish exercise at least three hours before bedtime, as it may stimulate some people and keep them awake.


 
5 - Stop eating and drinking a couple of hours before bed

By cutting out your bedtime snack you will eat fewer calories, and you may even have a better night’s sleep and wake up more alert. Also, by not drinking fluids a few hours before bed you’ll reduce the need to go the bathroom in the middle of the night.
 
6 - Lower your lights when the sun goes down

If your brain thinks it’s daytime it will not make the sleep hormone melatonin so it can stay awake. So, having bright white (or blue-ish) lights can trick your brain into thinking that it’s daytime. 
So, you can dim your lights, buy amber/red light bulbs and/or blue-blocker glasses, turn off electronics (or at least use the f.lux or twilight apps), and if you do need to go to the bathroom during the night, don’t turn on the light. 
 

7 - Create a relaxing pre-bed routine.

 Choose something that you enjoy and will help to relax your body and mind and prepare it for a good night’s sleep, whether it be a warm bath, or reading a book.

 When you start feeling drowsy, just go to bed.


 
8 - Keep your bedroom comfortable.Having a room that is too hot, bright, or noisy can keep you from having a good night’s sleep. Ideally, your room will be cool, completely dark, and either silent or with white noise.


 
9 - Get light as soon as you wake up.  

Turn on the lights or open the blinds as soon as you wake. This tells your brain to wake up and start the day. 
 
 
REFERENCES
 
Cappuccio FP, Taggart FM, Kandala N-B, et al. Meta-Analysis of Short Sleep Duration and Obesity in Children and Adults. Sleep. 2008;31(5):619-626.
 
Crispim CA, Zimberg IZ, dos Reis BG, Diniz RM, Tufik S, de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Dec 15;7(6):659-64. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.1476.
LINK:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3227713/
 
Dashti HS, Scheer FA, Jacques PF, Lamon-Fava S, Ordovás JM. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiologic evidence, mechanisms, and health implications. Adv Nutr. 2015 Nov 13;6(6):648-59. doi: 10.3945/an.115.008623. Print 2015 Nov.
LINK:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4642416/
 
Di Milia L, Vandelanotte C, Duncan MJ. The association between short sleep and obesity after controlling for demographic, lifestyle, work and health related factors. Sleep Med. 2013 Apr;14(4):319-23. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2012.12.007. Epub 2013 Feb 16.
LINK:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23419528
 
Lucassen EA, Rother KI, Cizza G. Interacting epidemics? Sleep curtailment, insulin resistance, and obesity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012 Aug;1264:110-34. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06655.x. Epub 2012 Jul 24.
LINK:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3418485/
 
Markwald RR, Melanson EL, Smith MR, et al. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2013;110(14):5695-5700. doi:10.1073/pnas.1216951110.
 
McHill AW, Wright KP Jr. Role of sleep and circadian disruption on energy expenditure and in metabolic predisposition to human obesity and metabolic disease. Obes Rev. 2017 Feb;18 Suppl 1:15-24. doi: 10.1111/obr.12503.
LINK:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28164449
 
Patel SR, Hu FB. Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Mar;16(3):643-53. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.118. Epub 2008 Jan 17.
LINK:  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2007.118/full
 
Shlisky JD, Hartman TJ, Kris-Etherton PM, Rogers CJ, Sharkey NA, Nickols-Richardson SM. Partial sleep deprivation and energy balance in adults: an emerging issue for consideration by dietetics practitioners. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Nov;112(11):1785-97. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.07.032.
LINK:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23102177/
 
Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index. PLoS Med. 2004 Dec;1(3):e62. Epub 2004 Dec 7.
LINK:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC535701/